Upgraded my phone to CyanogenMod 14 (Android 7.1). Dirty flashed over CM13, everything went smoothly. Using Tingle to apply the signature spoofing patch for microG now, instead of Xposed.

If you’re going to do the same: the first boot after an upgrade — including a Tingle patch — takes some time, don’t panic. Also, Wi-Fi only started connecting correctly after a reboot.